- As a framework to analyse the state of ecosystems and the services they provide;
- for regional planning and management of ecosystems, PAs, etc.;
- to identify and specify stakeholders;
- to value ecosystem services:
- in social-cultural values (jobs, cultural identity, pleasure);
- in ecological values (species variety & quantity);
- in economic values (€ or int. Dollars);
- to perform trade-off analysis of land use;
- as policy and communication tools;
- to create policy and financial instruments to develop and make use of ecosystem services.
Costanza R., d’Arge R., de Groot R., Farber S., Grasso M., Hannon B., Limburg K., Naeem S., O’Neill R., Paruelo J., Raskin R., Sutton P., van den Belt M. (1997): The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature vol 387.
Cunningham W. and Cunningham M. (2009): Principles of Environmental Science: Inquiry and Applications 5th edition. McGraw-Hill, NY, USA.
de Groot R.S. (1992): Functions of nature: Evaluation of nature in environmental planning, management and decision- making. Wolters Noordhoff B.V. Groningen, the Netherlands.